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Business Organization effective cooperation

Business Organization

A business organization is an act of grouping activities into effective cooperation to obtain the objective of the business.

In the words of L. H. Haney

“It is a more or less independent complex of land, labour and capital, organized and directed for productive purposes but entrepreneurial ability.”


The scope of business organization can be defined as under:

Business Organization

1. Sole Proprietorship

According to D.W.T. Stafford

“It is the simplest form of business organization, which is owned and controlled by one man.”

A sole proprietorship is the oldest form of business organization that is owned and controlled by one person. In this business, one man invests his capital himself. He is all in all in doing his business. He enjoys the whole of the profit. The features of a sole proprietorship are:

  • Easy Formation
  • Unlimited Liability
  • Ownership
  • Profit
  • Management
  • Easy Dissolution

2. Partnership

According to Partnership Act 1932:

“Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all.”

  • Scope of Business Organization
  • Sole Proprietorship
  • Partnership
  • Joint Stock
  • Company
  • Cooperative
  • Societies
  • Combination

A partnership means a lawful business owned by two or more persons. The profit of the business is shared by the partners in an agreed ratio. The liability of each partner is unlimited. Small and medium-size business activities are performed under this organization. It has the following features:

  • Legal Entity
  • Profit and Loss Distribution
  • Unlimited Liability
  • Transfer of Rights
  • Management
  • Number of Partners

3. Joint Stock Company

According to S. E. Thomas:

“A company is an incorporated association of persons formed usually for the pursuit of some commercial purposes”

A joint-stock company is a voluntary association of persons created by law. It has a separate legal entity apart from its members. It can sue and be sued in its name. In the joint-stock company, the work of the organization begins before its incorporation by promoters and it continues after incorporation. The joint-stock company has the following feature:

  • Creation of Law
  • Separate Legal Entity
  • Limited Liability
  • Transferability of shares
  • Number of Members
  • Common Seal

4. Cooperative Societies

According to Henrik:

“Cooperation is an action of persons voluntarily united for utilizing reciprocally their own forces, resources or both under mutual management for their common profit or loss.”

Cooperative Societies are formed for the help of poor people. It is formed by economically weak persons of the society. In this form of organization, all members enjoy equal rights of ownership. The features of a cooperative society are as under:-

  • Easy Formation
  • Protection of Mutual Interest
  • Limited Liability
  • Equal Distribution of Wealth
  • Equal Rights

5. Combination

According to J. L. Hanson

“Combination is the association, temporary or permanent, of two or more firms.” 

Business combinations are formed when a business concern undertaking units are combined to carry on business together for achieving the economic benefits. The combination among the firms may be temporary or permanent. The salient features of a business combination are:

  • Economy in Production
  • Effective Management
  • Division of Labour
  • Destructive Competition


The following points elaborate the role of business organizations:

1. Distribution

Another benefit of business organization is that it solves the problems of marketing and distribution like buying, selling, transporting, storage and grading, etc.

2. Feedback

An organization makes it possible to make decisions about production after getting feedback from markets.

3. Finance Management

It also guides the businessman that how he should meet his financial needs which is very beneficial for making progress in the business.

4. Fixing of Responsibilities

It also fixes the responsibilities of each individual. It introduces the scheme of internal checks. In this way, chances of errors and frauds are reduced.

5. Minimum Cost

It helps in attaining the goals and objectives of minimum cost in the business.

6. Minimum Wastage

It reduces the wastage of raw materials and other expenditures. In this way, the rate of profit is increased.

7. Product Growth

A business organization is very useful for product growth. It increases the efficiency of labour.

8. Quick Decision

The business organization makes it easy to take quick decisions.

9. Recognition Problems

The business organization makes it easy to recognize the problems in business and their solutions.

10. Reduces the Cost

A business organization is useful in reducing the cost of production as it helps in the efficient use of factors of production.

11. Secretariat Functions

It also guides the businessman about the best way of performing the secretarial functions.

12. Skilled Salesmen

It is also a benefit of the business organization that it provides skilled salesmen for satisfying various needs of the customers.

13. Transportation

It is another benefit is that it guides the businessman that what type of transport he should utilize to increase the sales volume of the product.

What are the factors of consideration before starting a business?


Following are the main pre-requisites of a successful business:

1. Selection

The first and most important decision before starting a new business is its selection. If once a business is established, it becomes difficult to change it. One should make a detailed investigation in the selection of business.

2. Feasibility Report

A person should prepare the feasibility report about the business to be started. This report will provide the facts and figures whether a business is profitable or not.

3. Nature of Business

There are various types of business like manufacturing, trading and services. The businessman should decide that what type of business he would like to start.

4. Demand of Product

The businessman also keeps in view the demand for the product which he wants to sell. If the demand is inelastic, the chances of success are bright. If the demand for a product is irregular, seasonal and uncertain, such business should not be started.

5. Size of Business

The Size of business means the scale of business. The size of a business depends upon the demand for commodities in the market and the organizational ability of entrepreneurs. The determination of the size of a business is an important decision of a person.

6. Availability of Capital

Availability of capital is an important factor in the business. Capital is required for the purchase of land, machines, wages and raw materials. A businessman must decide that how much capital he can arrange.

7. Business Location

A businessman has to select the place where he wants to start his business. He should select that place where raw material, cheap labour and transportation facilities are available. He should also check the location of business competitors.

8. Government Policy

The businessman should also carefully consider the policies of the government before starting a new business. Some areas are declared as ‘tax-free zones’ and for some particular businesses, the loan is provided without any interest.

9. Availability of Raw Material

Availability of Raw material is essential to produce the goods at a low cost. Sometimes the raw material is to be imported which may create problems for him. So a businessman must keep this factor in mind.

10. Availability of Machines

The availability of new machines is also an important factor for a business. A businessman must see whether these machines are easily available inside the country or not. If these are to be imported then it may create problems for him.

11. Availability of Labour

Skilled and efficient labour is essential to run the business in profit. But if efficient and skilled labour is not available where business is going to be started then it will not be profitable.

12. Means of Transportation

Quick and cheap means of transportation are essential for the low cost of production and high-profit rate. A businessman must keep in view this factor.

13. Power Resources

There must be the availability of power resources like water, oil, coal and electricity. So businessmen must keep in view this factor.

14. Hiring Employees

A businessman must hire efficient and competent employees in the business. The proper training must be given to employees.

15. Product Pricing

A businessman must decide the price of his product. In the beginning, the price must be low. He must keep in view that whether he will cover the cost of his product and other expenses with such price.


Following are the main functions of a business:

1. Production

Production of goods and services is the first main function of the business. The production must be regular. The goods and services must be produced in such a way that can satisfy human needs.

2. Sales

The sale is another important function of the business. Sales are of two types:

  • Cash sales
  • Credit sales

The sale must be regular and at a reasonable price. It is a very difficult job because there is hard competition in each market.

3. Finance

It is also an important function of the business to secure finance. Finance is required for the establishment and expansion of business. There are two sources of raising funds:

(a) Owner’s Capital

(b) Borrowed Funds

4. Management Function

“To do things efficiently and effectively” is known as management. The functions of management are: 

  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Leading
  • Controlling
  • Staffing

The management also provides direction for all subordinates.

5. Innovation

In this era of competition, for the survival of the business, innovation is essential. The businessman must try to find new techniques of production because the business may not sell present output in future.

6. Accounting

Another function of the business is to maintain its records properly. To record the business activities is called accounting. With proper accounts, the owner can know the actual performance of the business and chances of fraud are reduced.

7. Marketing

According to Harry Hanser

“Marketing involves the design of the products acceptable by the consumers and the conduct of those activities which facilitate the transfer of ownership between seller and buyer.”

Through marketing, goods are moved from producers to consumers. It is an important function of the business. This function includes buying, selling, transportation, product designing and storage, etc. The concept of the marketing mix is very important in marketing. It includes four Ps:

  • Product
  • Price
  • Place
  • Promotion

8. Quality Improvement

Quality of product must be improved to increase the sale. If the quality of the product is poor then the business may suffer a loss.

9. Motivation

Motivation is very essential for increasing the efficiency of employees. Motivation encourages the employees to give their best performance.

10. Research

Research is also an important function of any business. Research is a search for new knowledge. By research, business becomes able to produce improved and new goods. The research is of two types:

  • Basic Research
  • Applied Research

11. Public Relations

It is a very important function to make friendly relations with the public, In this way sales volume is increased.

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