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Internet | History of Internet | ARPANET | DARPANET

Internet | History of Internet | ARPANET | DARPANET


In the 1960s, America wanted to communicate with its Armed Forces during the cold war of Russia and America. So, a network of four computers was developed. 


ARPANET stands for Advanced Research Project Agency Network. It was a Defense Department research project. 

During Cold War, Russia launched a satellite named SPUTNIK and America developed a network named ARPANET. It was used to send information to the Armed Forces at very long distances. 

Paul Baran

In 1964, Paul Baran disclosed a theoretical idea for data transfer by publishing a paper on Distributed Communication Networks. Key features of the idea were;

  • Decentralized Data Storage
  • Breaking message into small Digital Packets 
  • Routes for the transfer of data   


DARPANET stands for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. It was a new version of ARPANET. It worked to share data on various networks instead of sharing on a single network. 


TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol and IP stands for Internet Protocol

In the early 1970s, Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf developed Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP, a communications model. It was a result of another experiment called the ARPANET which stood for Advanced Research Project Agency Network. It was a Defense Department research project. Paul Baran was trying to figure out how to build a communication system that might actually survive a nuclear attack. So, he had this idea of breaking messages up into blocks and sending them as fast as possible in every possible direction through the mesh network. Then it eventually became a nationwide experimental packet network. 

4.5 billion people or more than half of the world’s population use the internet.

Internet is made up of an incredibly large number of independently operated networks. The interesting about the system is that it’s fully distributed. There’s no central control that is deciding how packets are routed or where pieces of the network are built or even who interconnects with whom. These are all business decisions that are made independently by the operators. They are all motivated to assure that there is end-to-end connectivity of every part of the network. Because the utility of the net is that any device can communicate with any other device; just like you want to be able to make phone calls to any other telephone in the world. 

The idea that what you know might be useful to somebody else is a very powerful motivator for sharing information by users of the internet. That’s how science gets done and people share information. So this is an opportunity for people to think up new applications, maybe program them as apps on a mobile phone, maybe become part of the continued growth of the infrastructure of the network to bring it to people who don’t have access to it yet; or just make use of it on a day-to-day basis. You can’t escape from contact with the internet so why not get to know it and use it.

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